What is an electric car?
The electric car (EV) is a relatively new concept in the automotive world. Although some companies have based their entire car model on using electricity, some also offer hybrid vehicles that run on both electricity and conventional fuels (petrol-diesel).
EVs draw power for their movement from rechargeable batteries installed inside the car. These batteries are not only used to power the car, but also to operate the lights and wipers, they have more batteries than a normal petrol car. They are the same type of batteries that are commonly used when starting a gasoline engine vehicle. The only difference lies in the fact that electric vehicles have more of them, which are used to power the engine.
Advantages of an electric car
Conventional fuels (gasoline-diesel) are not required.
Electric cars are charged entirely by the electricity you supply them, which means they don't need conventional fuel (petrol-diesel).
The biggest advantage of an electric vehicle is their green energy footprint. Electric cars are 100% environmentally friendly as they run on electric motors.
Safe to drive
Electric cars undergo the same testing and inspection process as other conventionally fueled cars. An electric car is safer to use, given their lower center of gravity, which makes them much more stable on the road in the event of a crash. They are even less likely to create some kind of explosion in the absence of fuel.
Reduced noise pollution
Electric cars reduce noise pollution as they are much quieter. Electric motors are able to provide smooth movement with greater acceleration over longer distances.
Battery life and cost
Batteries are an integral part of an electric vehicle. Most electric vehicle batteries are lithium and their performance improves every year. A full capacity lithium ion battery should be good for 300 to 500 full cycles. A good battery can last you up to ten years. With improved technologies, the cost of these batteries is expected to drop even further.
Another really useful feature is regenerative braking. In normal cars, during the braking process we have a large loss of kinetic energy which is released as thermal energy. However, in an electric vehicle, the same energy is used to charge the batteries.
Disadvantages of an electric car
Power stations are still in the development stages. Many places you visit every day won't have charging stations for your vehicle, which means if you're traveling a long way or decide to visit family in a suburban area, it can be harder to find a charging station.
Initial investment cost
As EVs are very new, and the cost of lithium batteries quite high, the initial investment cost is quite high, but decreasing with the development of technology.
Electricity is not free
Sometimes electric cars require a very long charging time to function properly – something you reflect on your electricity bill every month.
Driving range and speed
Electric cars are limited by range and speed. Most of these cars have a range of around 330 to 550 km depending on battery size and body type after which they need to be recharged, although this is expected to improve in the future.
Longer recharge time
While it takes a few minutes to fuel your car with petrol, an electric car takes about 4-6 hours to fully charge. This time can be reduced with specialized power stations (installation of fast chargers).
Depending on the battery type and use, the batteries of almost all electric cars need to be replaced every 3-10 years.